On sale, mainly black mollies are found, which are removed artificially. Moreover, in the litter of these fish, which lovers call Molly, not only black fry are born, but also spotted, in which black scales alternate with light and blue-green.
Not so long ago, several varieties of these fish were bred. One of them is called forked molliesia. She has elongated lower and upper ends, as well as a cut tail. Another species is scarf molliesia, in which the dorsal fin is more elongated.
Mollinesia (Pecilia) refers to viviparous fish, and of these, these fish are the most capricious and demanding in the care and maintenance. To contain these fish, you need a large-capacity aquarium, at least 6 liters of water should be available for each adult couple in volume. A prerequisite is biological balance in the aquarium.
Water should be clear, clean and rich in oxygen. Its parameters: dH 10 - 25 °, pH 7.2 - 8.5. Weekly need to update 20-25% of all water.Mollinesia, or Pecilia (Poecilia).
The aquarium should have many illuminated and open areas, but at the same time, dense thickets of vegetation, stones, driftwood, which will be used for shelter, are needed. Most of the time these fish spend in the upper and middle layers of water.
Molliesesia are thermophilic fish, therefore water for them should have a temperature of 25 - 30 ° С. If the water temperature decreases or its quality decreases, then the fish press their fins to the body, they move sluggishly, in some cases they can lie at the bottom or, making small movements, linger in one place. This situation can be corrected by raising the temperature of the water and replacing part of the volume of water. It will not be superfluous to add 2-3 grams per liter of water of table or sea salt to the water.Mollinesia have a very beautiful appearance and color.
Demanding these fish and light. For them, daylight hours should last 13 hours or more. It is necessary to illuminate the aquarium with lamps of 0.5 - 0.7 W / l with a reinforced red component of the spectrum. It is necessary that at least 2 hours a day in the aquarium there was natural sunlight.
Fish are almost omnivorous; they can eat any live, dry food and vegetation, including algae. Various dietary supplements must be present in their diet. In mollies, the diet should be varied.
These fish are viviparous. They become sexually mature when they reach the age of 1 year. The duration of intrauterine development of fry is 35-45 days. Each time 50-60 fry are born. It should be borne in mind that fry of mollies are more demanding on the purity of water, therefore, water needs to be changed more often for them. To strengthen the immunity of young animals, water is slightly salted. They were fed for the first time by nauplii of cyclops, "live dust" and artemia.Pecilia is artificially bred for keeping in aquariums.
Sailing mollinsia has an elongated body with tightly flattened sides. Their tail fin has a rounded shape. Caudal stalk high. This subspecies has a small head, upturned mouth and large eyes. Outwardly, the female and the male are different from each other. The male dorsal fin is approximately 4.5 cm high. During mating, he opens it and the fin takes the form of a sail.
Body color varies from light blue to greenish blue. On the sides there are several longitudinal rows of shiny spots of pale green color. The chest is orange. The caudal and dorsal fins are blue, with shiny dots, black and orange rims. Males of sailing mollinesia have a movable genital copulative organ called gonopodia. In the natural environment, males of these fish grow up to 15 cm in length, and in captivity their body length is 10 cm.
The color of the females is gray - blue. Their body is covered in small dark dots. Their body reaches a length of up to 20 cm in natural conditions and up to 16 cm in captivity. Mullinsia sailing lives about 2-3 years.
These are very peaceful, active fish who like to jump. Get along well with other fish. Usually live in the upper and middle layers of water.
This subspecies is contained in a closed aquarium with a capacity of at least 70 liters. A prerequisite is good lighting. Plants, shelters and a space that will be enough for free swimming should be present in the aquarium. As the soil using medium-sized gravel. Water for the aquarium must meet the following parameters: hardness 15-25 °, pH 7.5-8.5, temperature 24 - 27 ° C. It is necessary to provide good aeration and filtration. About 20% of the water needs to be changed every week. From time to time, it is worth adding salt, either sea or table salt, at the rate of 2 grams per 1 liter of water.
If the fish provide proper care and maintenance, they will have a very bright color. If you notice that fins began to stick together in mollies, you need to increase the temperature of the water and add a little salt.Mollinesia feed on small crustaceans and their larvae.
Sailing mollinsia can eat almost any food - dry, animal and vegetable origin (including lettuce, spinach, algae).
This subspecies belongs to viviparous. The duration of pregnancy is 6-8 weeks. They live in enclosed aquariums with floating vegetation and several different shelters. Water in the aquarium needs to be updated regularly. 50-100 fry are usually born into the world. As soon as they are born, adult fish are sent to another aquarium so that they do not eat offspring. Young animals can be fed artemia, cyclops, live dust. These fish grow very fast. They become sexually mature at the age of 6-8 months.
Another species of these fish is molliesia sphenops. Other names are black mollies, sharp-winged mollies, and fossil pecilia. Habitat - fresh and salty waters of Mexico, the USA and Colombia. The body of these fish is dense, flattened laterally, oblong. They have a small head, large eyes and upturned mouth. The fins are small in size. The caudal fin has 22-24 rays, the dorsal - 10-11, anal - 8-9. Caudal fin wide at base. It is well developed, has a rounded shape.Black molliesia.
Gonopodia (genital mobile copulative organ) in these fish is pointed in shape and has a membranous hook located on the 3rd ray. The body color of this subspecies has a wide range of variations. Yellow-orange, silver (wild), yellow-gray with dark spots and the most common black, which is in any pet store, were brought out artificially. Externally, males and females have differences. In the natural environment, males grow up to 8 cm, in captivity - up to 6 cm. In females, in comparison with males, the abdomen is more complete. Females in nature are 10-12 cm long, in captivity - up to 10 cm. These fish live up to 5 years.
These fish are very active, jumping. Moreover, they are very peaceful. The best option for keeping is a flock, most of which are females. Mollinesia sphenops get along well with other fish. The only exceptions are tiger barbs.
Some males may be aggressive towards members of their species. These fish chose the upper and middle layer of water. Keep them, like all other mollies, you need in an aquarium with a capacity of at least 70 liters, so that 10 liters of water per one fish. There should be plants and shelters in the aquarium. It is important to provide good, near-natural lighting. Free space should be sufficient for unimpeded movement of fish. As soil, medium sized gravel should be used.
The water for the aquarium in which these fish will be kept should have the following parameters: hardness 11-25 °, pH 7.5-8.0, temperature 24 - 27 ° C. There should be good filtration and aeration. Regularly, every week you need to update the water, approximately 30% of the total. Sea or salt is added to the water from time to time (approximately 1.5 grams per 1 liter of water). These fish are susceptible to fungal diseases.The main condition in the content of mollies is a comfortable temperature and proper nutrition, then the fish live 5 years.
The diet of mollies of sphenops is represented by dry food (substitutes), vegetable (algae, food bran, spinach and lettuce leaves) and animals (bloodworms, mosquito larvae, daphnia, worms). These fish very often overeat.
Like all mollies, this species is viviparous. The duration of pregnancy is 4-8 weeks. Manufacturers are kept in a closed aquarium with shelters and plants. Periodic partial renewal of water is needed. If the producers are kept in the wrong conditions, then the offspring may be born unviable. As soon as the fry are born, adult individuals are immediately drained from them.
Each litter totals up to 100 fry. Immediately after birth, they can swim. Artemia nauplii, live dust, cyclops, algae, boiled egg yolk, and spinach serve as food for young animals. Fish grow very fast. As soon as the sex of the fry becomes clear, I separate the females and males, they are kept in different aquariums for six months. Splenops become sexually mature at the age of 9-12 months.